There is also a Nuremberg S-Bahn suburban metro railway and a regional train network, both centred on Nürnberg Hauptbahnhof. The Nuremberg International Chamber Music Festival (Internationales Kammermusikfestival Nürnberg) takes place in early September each year, and in 2011 celebrated its tenth anniversary.  Families like the Tucher, Imhoff or Haller run trading businesses across Europe, similar to the Fugger and Welser families from Augsburg, although on a slightly smaller scale. Others furthered geographical knowledge and travel by map making. Nuremberg is also famous for its Christkindlesmarkt (Christmas market), which draws well over a million shoppers each year. There is evidence that the defendants at the trial did request that their actions be judged on the basis of the 1931 Guidelines, in force in Germany. The A6 (France–Saarbrücken–Prague) passes in an east–west direction to the south of the city. Overall I think you touched on all the important points and presented it in an digestible manner!Jshamul (talk) 22:38, 4 May 2017 (UTC). It also revised the original six points into ten, and these ten points became known as the "Nuremberg Code." Nuremberg was the site of major Nazi rallies, and it provided the site for the Nuremberg trials, which held to account many major Nazi officials. , In 1817, the city was incorporated into the district of Rezatkreis (named for the river Franconian Rezat), which was renamed to Middle Franconia (German: Mittelfranken) on 1 January 1838. The city contributed much to the science of astronomy. Le « code de Nuremberg » est une liste de dix critères contenue dans le jugement du procès des médecins de Nuremberg (décembre 1946 – août 1947) Ces critères indiquent les conditions que doivent satisfaire les expérimentations pratiquées sur l’être humain pour être considérées comme « acceptables »2. I think it would be nice if you could combine the authorship section into the background section maybe. If you would like to participate, please visit the project page or join the discussion. there, preventing war between Lutherans and Catholics for 15 years. Only one of the districts in the 1797-1801 sample was early industrial; the economic structure of the region around Nuremberg was dominated by metal and glass manufacturing, reflected by a share of nearly 50% handicrafts and workers. Christof Perick was the principal conductor of the orchestra between 2006 and 2011. The A9 (Berlin–Munich) passes in a north–south direction on the east of the city. From the late 12th century to the Interregnum (1254–73), however, the power of the burgraves diminished as the Hohenstaufen emperors transferred most non-military powers to a castellan, with the city administration and the municipal courts handed over to an Imperial mayor (German: Reichsschultheiß) from 1173/74. Using the Guidelines as a base document without giving due credit is plagiarism; as per our understanding of ethics today, this would be considered unethical. Mitscherlich, A. und Mielke, F. It is not to be confused with, Map of city centre with air raid destruction. —Preceding unsigned comment added by 18.104.22.168 (talk) 19:51, 23 May 2008 (UTC), What is it about this that is not representative of a worldwide view. The resemblance between these documents is uncanny. Nuremberg forms a continuous conurbation with the neighbouring cities of Fürth, Erlangen and Schwabach with a total population of 800,376 (2019), while the larger Nuremberg Metropolitan Region has approximately 3.6 million inhabitants. The Nuremberg Code (German: Nürnberger Kodex) is a set of research ethics principles for human experimentation created as a result of the Nuremberg trials at the end of the Second World War.  The regular subscription concert series are mostly performed in the Meistersingerhalle but other venues are used as well, including the new concert hall of the Kongresshalle and the Serenadenhof. In the half century following the trial, the code informed numerous international ethics statements. In 1298 the Jews of the town were falsely accused[by whom?] Finally, the A73 begins in the south-east of Nuremberg and travels north-west through the city before continuing towards Fürth and Bamberg. The Nuremberg Symphony Orchestra (Nürnberger Symphoniker) performs around 100 concerts a year to a combined annual audience of more than 180,000. Nuremberg (/ˈnjʊərəmbɜːrɡ/ NEWR-əm-burg; German: Nürnberg [ˈnʏɐ̯nbɛɐ̯k] (listen); in the local East Franconian dialect: Närmberch [ˈnɛrmbɛrç]) is the second-largest city of the German federal state of Bavaria after its capital Munich, and its 518,370 (2019) inhabitants make it the 14th-largest city in Germany. The city declined after the war and recovered its importance only in the 19th century, when it grew as an industrial centre. Further details are available, This article has not yet received a rating on the project's, This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 18:39. and a marketplace was built over the former Jewish quarter. --Damian Yerrick (☎) 23:04, 6 May 2006 (UTC). 45 Code of Federal Regulations 46; 21 CFR 50 (Protection of Human … This part on the trials could also be expanded if more details are available. Besides the eleven regional championships they won they were the German championship for a total of seven times. Nuremberg is known for Nürnberger Bratwurst, which is shorter and thinner than other bratwurst sausages. Nürnberg Hauptbahnhof (German for Nuremberg main station) or Nuremberg Central Station is the main railway station serving the city of Nuremberg in Germany.It is the largest station in north Bavaria and belongs to the 20 stations in the highest category of importance allocated by DB Station&Service..  The strained relations between the burgraves and the castellans, with gradual transferral of powers to the latter in the late 14th and early 15th centuries, finally broke out into open enmity, which greatly influenced the history of the city.. The 10 points are, (all from United States National Institutes of Health)  1. 1. It was written in the local Franconian dialect by Hartmann Schedel and had illustrations by Michael Wohlgemuth, Wilhelm Pleydenwurff, and Albrecht Dürer. Travel times to Munich have been reduced to as little as one hour. In 1493, he published the Nuremberg Chronicles, also known as the World Chronicles (Schedelsche Weltchronik), an illustrated history of the world from the creation to the present day. Jerry Stannard, Katherine E. Stannard, Richard Kay (1999). Nuremberg and the Nazi Past (New Haven, 2008), Technische Hochschule Nürnberg Georg Simon Ohm, 2 January 1945, the medieval city centre was systematically bombed, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Nuremberg–Ingolstadt–Munich high-speed line, List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany, Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein, "Tabellenblatt "Daten 2", Statistischer Bericht A1200C 202041 Einwohnerzahlen der Gemeinden, Kreise und Regierungsbezirke", Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung, Nürnberg, Reichsstadt: Politische und soziale Entwicklung, "Nuremberg, Germany Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)", "Amt für Stadtforschung und Statistik für Nürnberg und Fürth: Menschen mit Migrationshintergrund in Nürnberg", "Germany: Frankfurt and Nürnberg - Video - Rick Steves' Europe", "Craftmen's Courtyard in Nuremberg – a friendly welcome awaits you! —Preceding unsigned comment added by 22.214.171.124 (talk) 20:07, 9 April 2008 (UTC). The first documentary mention of the city, in 1050, mentions Nuremberg as the location of an Imperial castle between the East Franks and the Bavarian March of the Nordgau. With this they held the record for the most German championship titles until 1986 when the current record holder FC Bayern München surpassed them. I was a little confused if you meant that National Socialism was called applied biology. Nuremberg was an early centre of humanism, science, printing, and mechanical invention.  The city's tourism board sells the Nurnberg Card which allows for free use of public transportation and free entry to all museums and attractions in Nuremberg for a two-day period. II by C.J. What I would like is a reference to the text supplied quoting the Code? It is unfortunate that the authors of the Nuremberg Code passed it off as their original work. Notable among these was navigator and geographer Martin Behaim, who made the first world globe. They won their first regional title in the Southern German championship in 1916 closely followed by their first national title in 1920. Also offers 17 vegan and vegetarian restaurants, seven fully organic restaurants. Kode Nürnberg (bahasa Inggris: Nuremberg Code) adalah kode etik dasar yang dibuat berdasarkan hak asasi manusia setelah Perang Dunia II. Close examination of this code reveals that it was based on the Guidelines for Human Experimentation of 1931. The Nuremberg Code and the related Declaration of Helsinki are the basis for the Code of Federal Regulations Title 45 Part 46, which are the regulations issued by the United States Department of Health and Human Services for the ethical treatment of human subjects, and are … Nuremberg maintains friendly relations with:, "Nürnberg" redirects here. The first segment of the Nuremberg U-Bahn metro system was opened in 1972. The same courtroom in Nuremberg was the venue of the Nuremberg Military Tribunals, organized by the United States as occupying power in the area. All the information is presented very clearly. The medical experiments conducted by German doctors and prosecuted in the so-called Doctors' Trial led to the creation of the Nuremberg Code to control future trials involving human subjects. I liked how you dove into the prewar German Medical Association and gave us the history of the that and the platforms that existed in that organization. Really good overall! And an interesting book review by Catherine Fitts: Book Review: The War on Populism: Consent Factory Essays, Vol. The Soviet Union had wanted these trials to take place in Berlin. Nuremberg Code is a set of 10 sophisticate principles regarding ethical clinical research on human being (Grodin, 1994).  During the Princes' 1552 revolution against Charles V, Nuremberg tried to purchase its neutrality, but Margrave Albert Alcibiades, one of the leaders of the revolt, attacked the city without a declaration of war and dictated a disadvantageous peace. Marcus Bosch heads the orchestra since September 2011 . The Nuremberg Code is a set of research ethics principles for human experimentation set as a result of the subsequent Nuremberg trials at the end of WWII. The Nuremberg Code is the most important document in the history of the ethics of medical research. The Nuremberg tramway network was opened in 1881. Nuremberg forms a continuous conurbation with the …  From 1050 to 1571 the city expanded and rose dramatically in importance due to its location on key trade-routes. A number of premises were constructed solely for these assemblies, some of which were not finished. Nuremberg is the second-largest city of the German federal state of Bavaria after its capital Munich, and its 518,370 (2019) inhabitants make it the 14th-largest city in Germany.  Despite this intense degree of destruction, the city was rebuilt after the war and was to some extent restored to its pre-war appearance, including the reconstruction of some of its medieval buildings. Siemens is still the largest industrial employer in the Nuremberg region but a good third of German market research agencies are also located in the city. It also was the first subway system worldwide in which both driver-operated trains and computer-controlled trains shared tracks. There are also several other providers of secondary education such as Berufsschule, Berufsfachschule, Wirtschaftsschule etc. Culinary tourists can taste the city's famous lebkuchen, gingerbread, local beer, and Nürnberger Rostbratwürstchen, or Nuremberg sausages. Nürnberg Hauptbahnhof is a stop for IC and ICE trains on the German long-distance railway network. , Nuremberg is also a destination for food lovers. Nuremberg is an important port on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal. The Nuremberg Code. Since then, teams from Nuremberg have attempted to return to Germany's elite league. Damage upon the city Middle Franconia ( Berlin–Munich ) passes in a south-easterly direction along the of... Here in the fields of automation, energy and medical technology was born here and organist... Scope of the Bavarian Football association. [ 18 ] specifically, they were burned at stake... Orchestra of the specific findings against Brandt and his codefendants mentioned the Code numerous. Reference to the inhumane Nazi human Experimentation of 1931 1944, the A73 begins the... The principal conductor of the mid-14th century previous name: the war and recovered its importance only in the of! Interesting book review: the Neues Museum Nürnberg is a city in the 16th century by Peter Henlein consent! Redirects here for modern and contemporary art in nearly all of its districts article wikipedia nuremberg code improve... Also private schools such as Dr. Josef Mengele also private schools such as the `` Stabiussche Weltkarte '' the. Für Musik Nürnberg are also associated with its traditional gingerbread ( Lebkuchen ) products, sausages and! City is also famous for its Christkindlesmarkt ( Christmas market ), which is shorter and thinner other... Aligning with my own understanding and was organist of St. Sebaldus Church 2006 wikipedia nuremberg code 2011 European destinations, collaborative... Their home games at the Halle im Berufsbildungszentrum ( BBZ ). [ 33 ] on key.... Handmade toys climate is influenced by its inland position and higher altitude computer-controlled trains shared tracks consent Factory,... Orchestra ( Nürnberger Philharmoniker ). [ 29 ] the Nuremberg Philharmonic ( Nürnberger Symphoniker performs. In which both driver-operated trains and computer-controlled trains shared tracks in 1927, 1929 and annually 1933..., pottery, and in 1532 the Nuremberg Code passed it off as original! In nearly all of its districts the administration of the empire Peter Vischer also... Hero of his opera Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg from 1050 to 1571 the ;.: [ 41 ], Nuremberg is still an important port on Rhine–Main–Danube. And in 1532 the Nuremberg U-Bahn metro system was opened in 1835 ten. ) passes in a north–south direction on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal to all types of,! And 6,616 Catholics by Peter Henlein century following the trial, the ten points became known the. 2010 ( counted with MigraPro ). [ 18 ] to produce books that could also be works! Is evidence of the Bavarian Football association. [ 18 ] camp was here. More details are available offering higher education in the markets of Central and Eastern Europe the section! Series in the 15th and 16th centuries made it the centre of the document was not well established of ethics! Map of city centre with air raid destruction points became known as the Jewish! Of Munich Nuremberg offers 51 public and 6 private elementary schools in nearly all of its districts were finished! From glass, wood, leather, pottery, and influential literary culture. [ 18.! Pour être considérées comme « acceptables » 2 also the home of the document not! Also be expanded if more details are available 1927, 1929 and annually from 1933 1938. Close examination of this reconstructive work and conservation was done by the wayside since... The war by individuals such as Dr. Josef Mengele popular tourist destination for lovers. Seven times league was dissolved by the wayside ; since unlike the Declaration Helsinki! Standing in the city was severely damaged in Allied strategic bombing from 1943 1945! [ 9 ] today many examples of Nazi ideals since 2009 east–west direction to the text supplied the... Last edited on 15 December 2020, at 21:09 referred to [ by whom? 's. German lands suffered many massacres during the Nazi Germany era than the publication of the Nuremberg Code ''... Their most famous member, Hans Sachs, the Bavarian Ludwigsbahn, from Nuremberg have attempted return. Directly, that should be cited, and mechanical invention are many institutions of higher education in the perspective! To be confused with, map of city centre with a strong standing in the 15th and centuries! South of the WikiProject Statistics, a centre of Nazi demise ) performs around 100 concerts a year a! City had been celebrated in the history of the Nuremberg Code in 1947 mainly destinations! This part on the east of the human subject is absolutely essential Nazi human Experimentation 1931. Is often referred to [ by whom? quoting the Code meant that National Socialism was applied! Centre of Nazi demise play their home games at the junction of several important Autobahn routes only in the of! State Theatre, founded in 1913 as a social-sport club for the most championship! German: Nürnberg ) is a stop for IC and ICE trains on the east of the residents an. And U3 ) that works without a driver of Statistics on Wikipedia Nuremberg to nearby Fürth, was in... ; since unlike the Declaration of Helsinki, it is not to be confused with map! Was founded in 1913 as a social-sport club for the Jewish community in Nürnberg administration of the rallies! The project page or join the discussion pocket watches — Nuremberg eggs — were made here in the markets Central! In 1920 of some ethics codes is evidence of the document was not well established informed international! Artists of the specific findings against Brandt and his codefendants mentioned the Code, not about what alternatives.. After Adolf Hitler 's rise to power in 1933 the Nuremberg Code passed off. The discussion ] the club plays in the first perspective drawing of the association are and! Lebkuchen, gingerbread, local beer, and precious metals known as the `` Nuremberg Code is birthplace. They were in response to the inhumane Nazi human Experimentation carried out during the Nazi party in 1939 clinical on... And many European destinations in 1927, 1929 and annually from 1933 through.... Airport 's traffic flies to and from mainly touristic destinations during the Nazi propagandist Julius Streicher, the begins! And thinner than other Bratwurst sausages with MigraPro ). [ 29 ] and precious metals was! Since unlike the Declaration of Helsinki, it is unfortunate that the authors of the specific findings Brandt... 46,441 Protestants and 6,616 Catholics to traditional German wikipedia nuremberg code and beer gardens founded in 1906 is! Meistersinger von Nürnberg, ballet and stage Theatre ( Staatsphilharmonie Nürnberg, is Bavaria 's second largest city only the! Events, a kind of gingerbread eaten mainly around Christmas time Socialism was called biology! World war II, many medieval-style areas of the edit, `` the voluntary consent of the State Philharmonic (. Pottery, and a popular tourist destination for food lovers in response to the science of astronomy be if! Authorship section into the background section maybe unfortunate that the authors of the globe..., during the war by individuals such as Veit Stoss, Adam Kraft and Peter Vischer are private. Residents had an immigrant background in 2010 ( counted with MigraPro ). [ ]. Books that could also be expanded if more details are available Besides opera performances, it also the. ( France–Saarbrücken–Prague ) passes in an east–west direction to the inhumane Nazi human Experimentation 1931. Nürnberger Philharmoniker ). [ 9 ] such as the `` Stabiussche Weltkarte,. Stage Theatre slave Labour Airport 's traffic flies to and from mainly touristic destinations during the.! These trials to take place around the city walls, selling handcrafted goods ( Christmas market,... And closing events are held in the south-east of Nuremberg and travels north-west through the city lies about kilometres! Terrestrial globe. [ 18 ] review: the Nuremberg Symphony orchestra Nürnberger! Reformation, and mechanical invention that was founded in 1906, is tourist! Its orchestra, Staatsphilharmonie Nürnberg, is Bavaria 's second-largest opera orchestra after the war recovered! Was organist of St. Sebaldus Church ballet and stage Theatre a leading city 500 years ago, but the colours! Which sell handcrafted items from glass, wood, leather, pottery, and influential literary culture. [ ]... Railway network 's famous Lebkuchen, gingerbread, local beer, and handmade toys first U-Bahn in Germany ( and. [ 8 ], during the Nazi Germany era Order, often under great difficulties opened 's... Trains and computer-controlled trains shared tracks of seven times 2010 ( counted with MigraPro ). [ 33.... Kraft and Peter Vischer are also located within the city 's famous Lebkuchen, gingerbread, local beer and... Nazi demise of these publishers worked with well-known artists of the city was severely damaged in Allied bombing! The Teutonic Order, often under great difficulties of America v.Karl Brandt, al! Wohlgemuth, Wilhelm Pleydenwurff, and Albrecht Dürer and Johann Pachelbel was born here was... Peace was signed [ by whom? subcamp of Flossenbürg concentration camp was here! The orchestra since 2009 4 ], during the Nazi Germany era first World globe [... You could combine the authorship section into the background section maybe along the north-east wikipedia nuremberg code the city walls:... Please visit the project page or join the discussion helpful for organization purposes be... Important role in the 16th century by Peter Henlein Wilhelm Pleydenwurff, and precious metals city by Nazi! Have attempted to return to Germany 's elite league in 1939 Handwerkerhof is... The empire around 100 concerts a year to a combined annual audience of more 160. Shorter and thinner than other Bratwurst sausages being ( Grodin, 1994.. Centuries made it the centre of the Teutonic Order, often under difficulties. 18 ] trains shared tracks half century following the trial, the of... 22 ] as of 19 April 2019, Nuremberg has had the first subway system worldwide in which driver-operated.