In 1208 Pope Innocent III called for a Crusade - this time against a country of fellow Christians. During his reign, numerous groups were persecuted at the start of the 13th century, in particular the Albigensian's. On June 25 or 29, while attempting to fend off a sally by the defenders, Montfort was struck and killed by a stone hurled from defensive siege equipment. Although the knights did not stop the massacre, they soon intervened to claim the valuables of the city for themselves. On January 13, 1208, Raymond met Pierre in the hope of gaining absolution.  Before the crusade, there was little fighting in the area and it had a fairly sophisticated polity. Several of their practices, especially their belief in the inherent evil of the physical world, conflicted with the doctrines of the Incarnation of Christ and Catholic sacraments. They were naked according to Peter of Vaux-de-Cernay, a monk and eyewitness to many events of the crusade, but "in their shifts and breeches", according to Guillaume de Puylaurens, a contemporary.  Ultimately, only three women recanted. In 1221, the success of Raymond and his son continued: Montréal and Fanjeaux were retaken and many Catholics were forced to flee. Innocent trusted Peter and was hoping to bring an end to the Albigensian Crusade in order to launch a new crusade in the Middle East and to maintain pressure on the Moors.  After capturing Marmande, Louis attempted to retake Toulouse.  Ultimately, the defenders were not able to break the siege, and on November 22 the Cathars managed to abandon the city and escape. However, after visiting southern France in 1303, he became alarmed by the anti-monarchical sentiments of the people in the region, especially in Carcassonne, and decided to remove the restrictions placed on the Inquisition. Visiting a local church naked once each month to be scourged was also a common punishment, including for returned pilgrims.  The war became protracted, and eventually the French king entered the war and took control over the Languedoc. Nevertheless, this book illustrates the dominance-at-all-cost of the Catholic Church, which is frightening, illuminating and important. , Simon de Montfort, a prominent French nobleman, was then appointed leader of the Crusader army, and was granted control of the area encompassing Carcassonne, Albi, and Béziers. Burnings for heresy had been very uncommon, and in the past had sometimes taken place at the behest of noblemen for political rather than religious reasons over the objections of leading Catholic clergy. The Cathar understanding of God was entirely disincarnate: they viewed God as a being or principle of pure spirit and completely unsullied by the taint of matter. He fought the Moors in Spain, and served in the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa.  Peters maintains that the violence was due to the crusade being under the control of mobs, petty rulers, and local bishops who did not uphold Innocent's ideas. The Massacre at Béziers refers to the slaughter of the inhabitants during the sack of Béziers, an event that took place on 22 July 1209, and was the first major military action of the Albigensian Crusade They did not specifically invoke dualism as a tenet. 19) and so countless number in that town were slain. The new enemy: Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse, one of the greatest princes in Christendom, premier baron of all the territories in southern France where the langue d'oc was spoken. By the 12th century, more organized groups such as the Waldensians and Cathars were beginning to appear in the towns and cities of newly urbanized areas. The council gathered a thousand churchmen to authorize a tax on their annual incomes, the "Albigensian tenth", to support the Crusade, though permanent reforms intended to fund the papacy in perpetuity foundered.  Louis VIII died in November and was succeeded by the child king Louis IX. Between 1022 and 1163, the Cathars were condemned by eight local church councils, the last of which, held at Tours, declared that all Albigenses should be put into prison and have their property confiscated. Episode 9- The Albigensian Massacre Adam Ramdin. Episode 9- The Albigensian Massacre Adam Ramdin.  In desperation, Innocent turned to Philip II of France, urging him to either force Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse to deal with the heresy or depose him militarily.  The Crown of Aragon, under Peter II, allied with the County of Toulouse and various other entities to oppose Simon.  The Inquisition received funding from the French monarchy. Raymond Roger sought negotiations but was taken prisoner while under truce, and Carcassonne surrendered on August 15. The Albigensian Crusade (aka Cathars' Crusade, 1209-1229 CE), was the first crusade to specifically target heretic Christians - the Cathars of southern France. With the Cathars having suffered defeats, and with the bishops who he felt had been too lenient with heresy having been removed, he believed that the time had come to bring peace to the Languedoc. Others who altogether refused to repent were burned.  Disagreeing on the Catholic concept of the unique role of the priesthood, they taught that anyone, not just the priest, could consecrate the Eucharistic host or hear a confession. Its occupants, excluding only the commander and his knights, were massacred. , The Inquisition continued to search for and attempt to prosecute Cathars. Just a $10 donation will help us reach 300 more people!  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